Quenya zR5Ì#

-na

no longer part of verbal conjugation

-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.

-nna

to

-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of - "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).

-nna

to, at, upon

-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

This suffix is frequently used to create the adjective form of a noun, especially in the form -ëa for nouns ending in . This function dates back to CE. ✶.

[PE17/149.0706-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

na

to, towards

na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE17/068.2209-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ana

to

ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_

*turúna

mastered

*turúna passive participle "mastered", only attested attested in the elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete spelling turun in Silm ch. 21). The form may be understood as the passive participle of the verb turu- "master, defeat, have victory over" (PE17:113), the sole available example of a U-stem verb appearing in such a participle form. Compare -na #4.

turúna

adjective. mastered

-voitë

suffix. adjective suffix

Sindarin iT2#7T5

na

to

e _ prep. _to, towards (of spacetime). n' before vowels. nan 2

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:147] < _nā _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

na

preposition. to

prep. to Na-chaered palan-díriel lit. "To-distance (remote) after-gazing" na-chaered, nan 2

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:20-1:25] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

na

preposition. of, along with, with, accompanied by, provided with, associated with, of (the), of the, provided by, marked with, with, with, with, by

[LotR/0469.1903; LotR/0469.2402; PE17/028.1706; PE17/028.3508; PE17/082.0208; PE17/097.1805; PE17/097.2205; PE17/147.1202; PE17/147.1205; PE17/147.1402; PE17/147.1506; PE17/147.1704; PE17/147.1813; PE21/79.2512; PM/348.3402; UT/140.2010; VT50/21.0708; VT50/23.0101; WJ/160.4405; WJ/187.3402; WJI/Taur-na-Chardhîn.002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an

preposition. to, towards, for

With suffixed article and elision in aglar'ni Pheriannath

[LotR/II:IV, UT/39, SD/129-31] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

an

to

_ prep. _to, for. naur an edraith ammen! 'fire [be] for rescue/saving for us'. aglar an|i Pheriannath  'glory to all the Halflings'.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:38:102:147] < _ana _< ANA/NĀ to, towards – added to, plu-. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

en

preposition. of, of the

[Let/448.3510; LotR/0953.2205; LotR/1134.2504; MR/373.2401; MR/373.2705; PE17/097.1203; PE17/097.1909; PE17/097.1914; PE17/097.2002; PE17/097.2105; PE17/097.2111; PE17/097.2210; PE17/097.2403; PE17/097.3015; PE17/097.3104; PE17/102.2703; PE17/126.2305; PE17/141.2413; S/197.2001; S/203.1004; S/216.2406; UT/040.3810; UT/040.3901; UT/054.2002; UT/100.1314; UT/150.2109; UT/153.0604; UT/245.1805; VT41/11.2504; VT41/16.0410; VT41/16.0506; VT50/23.0102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-eb

suffix. adjective suffix

[WJ/337.2409-3; WJ/412.3002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-en

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE17/098.4102-2; RGEO/62.0301-2; SA/lin¹.006-3; SD/129.0202-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ren

suffix. adjective suffix

[SA/anga.014-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an

to

(prep.) an (+ nasal mutation), with article ni "to the" (+ nasal mutation in plural).

an

to

(adverbial prefix) an-. 3)

-iel

suffix. adjective suffix

[S/235.3205-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[VT42/25.3309] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pa

preposition. to, on

[PE13/151.5403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech

u

preposition. to

[LotR/0445.1707; PE17/078.3902; PM/083.0909] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

-eb

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/AKLA-R.020-1; Ety/DYEL.021-2; Ety/KAY.019-2; Ety/OY.028-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

heltha-

verb. to strip

The form helta- in the Etymologies is a misreading according to VT/46:14

[Ety/386, VT/46:14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

-en

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/BARAS.036-2; Ety/DUL.013-2; Ety/LIS.011-2; Ety/MET.013-2; Ety/PHIR.032-2; Ety/PIS.008-2; Ety/SMAL.023-2; Ety/TÁWAR.041-2; Ety/WIL.030-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ion

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/TIL.017-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ren

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/ANGĀ.012-2; Ety/GLAM.025-2; Ety/KHYAR.024-2; Ety/KWET.041-2; Ety/KYELEP.018-2; Ety/LUM.026-2; Ety/PHAL.059-2; Ety/PHOR.028-2; Ety/TATHAR.014-2; RS/432.2004-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ui

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/BAN.061-2; Ety/GYEL.014-2; Ety/IS.030-2; Ety/KURÚM.009-2; Ety/MEL.047-2; Ety/MIL-IK.025-2; EtyAC/REG.029-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-iel

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/LÁWAR.040-3; Ety/NEI.037-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

-na

suffix. to

[VT49/14.2113] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-nā

suffix. adjective suffix, passive participle, passive participle, aorist (past)

[PE17/052.0501; PE17/068.1001; PE19/090.4711; PE21/78.1512; PE22/136.2802; VT49/18.0801-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ina

suffix. adjective suffix

Qenya zR5Ì#

-ina

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE15/77.4401-2; QL/031.3701-2; QL/031.7401-2; QL/043.2301-2; QL/043.6401-2; QL/043.8201-2; QL/044.3702-2; QL/044.9001-2; QL/045.3101-2; QL/047.5101-2; QL/051.7801-2; QL/057.1301-2; QL/057.3401-2; QL/058.3601-2; QL/074.3801-2; QL/075.1201-2; QL/075.4501-2; QL/080.2501-2; QL/081.1001-2; QL/081.1801-2; QL/083.4301-2; QL/083.7601-2; QL/084.4201-2; QL/084.8201-2; QL/086.6801-2; QL/086.9401-2; QL/087.3401-2; QL/088.5501-2; QL/088.6901-2; QL/088.7801-2; QL/091.2201-2; QL/093.6701-2; QL/094.6301-2; QL/094.7701-2; QL/094.8201-2; QL/102.2201-2; QL/105.1901-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

noun. to

Also glossed as “against”, “next”, “on (wall)”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
as-stem-QL/033.0801
asa-prefix-QL/033.0801

[QL/033.0801; QL/033.0802; QL/033.0901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-se

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/030.8301-3; QL/035.3901-2; QL/035.3902-2; QL/084.0501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/ERE.014-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE14/047.1611-3; PE14/051.1904-2; PE14/079.2801-2; PE15/67.3304-1; PE15/73.0503-2; PE16/100.2406-3; QL/030.0801-2; QL/030.8401-2; QL/033.4101-2; QL/033.6901-2; QL/034.0801-2; QL/035.1501-2; QL/037.1601-3; QL/037.5101-2; QL/039.6501-2; QL/039.7901-2; QL/042.1301-2; QL/043.4301-2; QL/047.1601-2; QL/047.7201-2; QL/048.5401-2; QL/048.6201-2; QL/048.9201-2; QL/049.1401-2; QL/049.1601-2; QL/051.4001-2; QL/051.5801-2; QL/051.6501-2; QL/052.7501-2; QL/053.6401-3; QL/053.6701-3; QL/053.6901-2; QL/053.7001-3; QL/053.7301-3; QL/054.5701-2; QL/054.6101-2; QL/054.6801-2; QL/054.7301-2; QL/054.7501-3; QL/055.0301-2; QL/055.5401-2; QL/055.9001-2; QL/056.0101-2; QL/056.5301-2; QL/056.6201-2; QL/056.7202-2; QL/056.7601-2; QL/057.0201-2; QL/057.3301-2; QL/057.5501-2; QL/057.6501-2; QL/058.3901-2; QL/060.7901-2; QL/061.6301-2; QL/061.6601-2; QL/063.4101-2; QL/063.5301-2; QL/064.5401-2; QL/064.7001-2; QL/065.1701-2; QL/066.4001-2; QL/067.8501-2; QL/067.8601-3; QL/068.2001-2; QL/068.2101-2; QL/068.2901-2; QL/069.0601-1; QL/069.8101-2; QL/070.8601-2; QL/072.1801-2; QL/072.3801-2; QL/073.8101-2; QL/074.5101-2; QL/074.5401-2; QL/074.8301-2; QL/075.2401-2; QL/076.2201-2; QL/076.2401-2; QL/076.3001-2; QL/077.1301-2; QL/077.1901-2; QL/077.4002-2; QL/077.7001-2; QL/077.7901-2; QL/078.0501-2; QL/078.1901-2; QL/079.3601-2; QL/080.7701-2; QL/081.4401-2; QL/081.6101-2; QL/082.5101-2; QL/083.5001-2; QL/083.5201-2; QL/086.7801-2; QL/087.3301-2; QL/088.5701-2; QL/088.6801-2; QL/090.2901-2; QL/091.0301-2; QL/091.0302-2; QL/091.2302-2; QL/091.4101-2; QL/091.4401-2; QL/091.6301-2; QL/092.3701-2; QL/092.7501-2; QL/092.7601-2; QL/092.8501-2; QL/094.2303-2; QL/095.7801-2; QL/096.0601-2; QL/096.0701-2; QL/097.8001-2; QL/099.8301-2; QL/101.2501-2; QL/101.7701-2; QL/102.0401-2; QL/103.1201-2; QL/103.6901-2; QL/105.4001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-noina

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/040.4301-2; QL/101.1401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ra

suffix. adjectival suffix

[QL/030.1801-2; QL/048.7801-2; QL/066.8601-2; QL/071.5101-2; QL/091.8701-2; QL/094.0101-2; QL/105.6601-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-wa

suffix. adjective suffix

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE14/082.0306-2; QL/032.1701-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-noite

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE15/69.0301-2; QL/039.3702-2; QL/067.5301-2; QL/077.2501-2; QL/077.4101-2; QL/080.3301-2; QL/104.2401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-voite

suffix. adjective suffix

-voite

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/029.5201-2; QL/031.7201-2; QL/048.5301-2; QL/049.1002-2; QL/051.3302-2; QL/055.0302-2; QL/057.5702-2; QL/057.6201-2; QL/062.0901-2; QL/078.7201-2; QL/083.7701-2; QL/096.4401-2; QL/098.5901-2; QL/100.1401-2; QL/102.7801-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-en

suffix. adjectival suffix

An adjectival suffix appearing as both -en and -in, and in one place as -on: Brithon. The -en form can be easily explained as a derivative of the primitive suffix ᴹ✶-inā, with the primitive [i] becoming [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection, the same origin as the Noldorin adjectival suffix -en. The -in variant is more difficult to explain. At least one example lómen had variations with both -en and -in, so perhaps the two forms represented vacillation on the function of Ilkorin a-affection, or an alternate primitive form ᴹ✶-ină where the final ă was lost before a-affection.

Alterately, -in could be a Doriathrin-specific variant, since the forms where it appears are all Doriathrin, while the forms where -en appear are marked Ilkorin, excepting only lómen which was itself revised from lómin.

[Ety/LAM.020-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-nā

suffix. adjective

[PE22/107.1110; PE22/111.1115] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-inā

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/LEP.119] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

to

proper name. to

[PE15/07.1301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ra

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/18.7301-2; GL/23.5901-2; GL/26.1301-2; GL/32.0901-2; GL/35.8301-2; GL/47.1301-2; GL/47.4101-2; GL/47.6101-2; GL/48.0401-2; LT1A/Vána.055-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(i)on

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/17.7801-2; GL/20.0801-3; GL/21.8101-2; GL/25.0601-2; GL/25.5101-2; GL/25.5301-2; GL/27.0401-2; GL/33.9101-2; GL/34.1902-2; GL/36.5001-2; GL/37.7201-2; GL/46.6001-2; GL/46.7701-2; GL/46.9201-2; GL/48.5501-2; GL/48.7301-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)in

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/19.5701-2; GL/19.6001-2; GL/20.6501-2; GL/20.7601-2; GL/20.9001-2; GL/21.5001-2; GL/22.3901-2; GL/22.7201-2; GL/22.8101-2; GL/23.2801-2; GL/24.7101-2; GL/25.7701-2; GL/25.8101-2; GL/25.8601-2; GL/26.2101-2; GL/26.3702-2; GL/26.4901-2; GL/27.3001-2; GL/27.7301-2; GL/28.1401-2; GL/30.7601-2; GL/32.1301-2; GL/32.4301-2; GL/32.7601-2; GL/33.0101-2; GL/33.3101-2; GL/33.3201-2; GL/33.4201-2; GL/34.3701-2; GL/34.7101-2; GL/34.7201-2; GL/35.6101-2; GL/35.8601-2; GL/36.1101-2; GL/37.3001-2; GL/37.3101-2; GL/37.6601-2; GL/38.2701-2; GL/38.4401-2; GL/38.5401-2; GL/39.0601-2; GL/39.4301-2; GL/39.4302-2; GL/39.5301-2; GL/39.5601-2; GL/39.6101-2; GL/39.7701-2; GL/40.1501-2; GL/40.3101-2; GL/40.7001-2; GL/42.8701-2; GL/44.8701-2; GL/47.2701-2; GL/47.7803-2; GL/48.4101-2; GL/48.9001-2; QL/037.7902-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-og

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/18.0501-2; GL/18.8301-2; GL/19.1101-2; GL/23.6501-2; GL/27.2701-2; GL/27.6501-2; GL/28.7301-2; GL/29.5801-2; GL/30.8801-2; GL/31.2401-2; GL/31.5101-2; GL/32.4001-2; GL/32.5601-2; GL/33.0701-2; GL/33.3601-2; GL/34.7301-2; GL/34.8301-2; GL/35.5301-2; GL/39.3701-2; GL/41.0401-2; GL/42.4001-2; GL/42.7601-2; GL/46.7401-2; GL/47.5701-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-wed

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/24.8801-2; GL/25.1301-2; GL/25.7801-2; GL/26.3502-2; GL/26.4801-2; GL/29.6001-2; GL/30.0901-2; GL/31.0401-2; GL/33.0801-2; GL/34.0201-2; GL/34.1601-2; GL/34.3601-2; GL/40.7301-2; GL/41.4801-2; GL/42.5001-2; GL/43.7201-2; GL/44.8101-2; GL/45.8701-2; GL/49.1901-2; PE13/113.3501-2; PE13/114.4601-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-thol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/26.7001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)ol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/17.5301-2; GL/17.6301-2; GL/22.0501-2; GL/23.6401-2; GL/24.1901-2; GL/24.2701-2; GL/24.7501-2; GL/25.3301-2; GL/27.5801-2; GL/27.5802-2; GL/38.9001-2; GL/42.1001-2; GL/42.8601-2; GL/43.3901-2; GL/46.2101-2; GL/47.2101-2; GL/47.5301-2; GL/47.5801-2; GL/48.5901-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)iol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/24.4601-2; GL/24.6701-2; GL/24.7201-2; GL/25.8201-2; GL/29.5901-2; GL/29.8801-2; GL/30.1301-2; GL/30.7301-2; GL/32.7701-2; GL/32.9101-2; GL/39.4701-2; GL/40.1401-2; GL/40.7702-2; GL/42.1901-2; GL/44.6301-2; GL/45.2101-2; GL/45.6201-2; GL/45.8501-2; GL/49.3401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

-eb

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE13/108.7501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ui

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE13/148.1701-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.