Quenya zR5Ì#

-mmë 0

suffix. we (exclusive)

Also glossed as “1st person plural exclusive”, “1st person plural”, “1 pl. excl.”.
Variations of the word: -mme.

[PE17/057.2202; PE17/075.4103; PE17/190.2805; VT49/38.2705; VT49/48.3206] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-mmë 0

we

-mmë "we", 1st person dual exclusive pronominal ending: "I and one other" (compare the inclusive dual form -ngwë or -nquë). First written -immë in one source (VT49:57). Carimmë, "the two of us do" (VT49:16, cf. VT43:6). At an earlier conceptual stage, the ending was already exclusive, but plural rather than dual: vammë "we won't" (WJ:371), firuvammë "we will die" (VT43:34), etemmë ?"out of us" (VT43:36); see also VT49:48, 49, 55. Also compare the corresponding emphatic pronoun emmë (q.v.). The ending -lmë replaced -mmë in its former (plural exclusive) sense. In some early material, -mmë was apparently used as an ending for plural inclusive "we" (VT49:55).

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-mmë 0

suffix. we (exclusive dual)

Also glossed as “1st person dual exclusive”, “1st person plural”, “[Dual] 1a”.
> -zme > -sme
Variations of the word: -nwe.

[PE17/057.2203; PE17/075.1901; VT49/16.3508; VT49/51.2308; PE17/057.2204] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-immë 0

-immë

-immë (2), see -mmë

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

et 0

out

et prep. (and adv.?) "out", when followed by ablative "out of" (VT45:13) or literally "out from", as in EO: et Eärello "out of the Great Sea"; cf. also et sillumello "from this hour" in VT44:35. Et i pe/péti, untranslated phrase, perhaps "out of the mouth" (VT47:35). Prefixet- "forth, out" (ET), also in longer form ete- (as in etelehta, eteminya); verb ettuler "are coming forth" (ettul- = et + tul-). (SD:290; read probably *ettulir or continuative *ettúlar in Tolkien's later Quenya). The forms etemmë and etengwë (VT43:36) seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"out of us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun -mmë denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual exclusive instead (see -mmë). Second person forms are also given: etelyë, etellë ?"out of you", sg. and pl. respectively (Tolkien would later change the ending for pl. "you" from -llë to -ldë).

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

vi 0

we

vi pron. "we", 1st person inclusive (PE17:130), variant of ve #2.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

ve 0

we

ve (2) pron. "we", 1st person pl. inclusive (corresponding to exclusive me), derived from an original stem-form we (VT49:50, PE17:130). Variant vi, q.v. Stressed , later (VT49:51). Dative (*wéna >) véna, VT49:14. Dual wet*, later vet "the two of us" (inclusive; cf. exclusive met) (VT49:51). Also compare the dative form ngwin or ngwen (q.v.), but this would apparently be wen > ven** according to Tolkiens later ideas.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

mi 0

preposition. in

Also glossed as “within”, “of”, “in the”, “among”.
Variations of the word: mi.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
definite-prepin thePE17/063.3702
definite-prepin theRGEO/58.4605
mil(le)2nd-pl-prep-VT43/36.2013
mil(ye)2nd-sg-prep-VT43/36.2009
mimme1st-pl-exclusive-prep-VT43/36.1506
mingwe1st-pl-inclusive-prep-VT43/36.1507

Element in: Q. mina, Q. mirroanwë

[VT43/30.3103; VT44/34.1101; VT44/18.2102; VT43/30.3104; VT43/13.3005; UT/317.1709; UT/305.1508; LotR/0377.3101; RGEO/58.0801; PE17/071.0307; PE17/063.3702; PE17/063.3704; PE17/092.3716; VT47/30.3003; RGEO/58.4605; VT49/35.3914; VT43/30.4107; VT43/36.2013; VT43/36.2009; VT43/36.1506; VT43/36.1507] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi 0

in, within

mi prep. "in, within" (MI, VT27:20, VT44:18, 34, VT43:30; the latter source also mentions the variant imi); "in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidently be mi = "in" and = mi i "in the"; VT49:35 also has with a long vowel, though the gloss is simply "in"). Used in PE17:71 (cf. 70) of people clad "in" various colours, e.g. mi mísë "in grey". Allative minna "to the inside, into" (MI), also mina (VT43:30). The forms mimmë and mingwë seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"in us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun -mmë denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual instead (see -mmë). Second person forms are also given: mil or milyë *"in you" (sg.), millë "in you" (pl.) (VT43:36). A special use of mi appears in the phrase Wendë mi Wenderon "Virgin of Virgins" (VT44:18); here mi appears superfluous to achieve the desired meaning, but this combination of singular noun + mi + plural genitive noun may be seen as a fixed idiom expressing that the initial noun represents the most prominent member of a class.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

me 0

we, us

me (1) 1st person pl. exclusive pronoun "we, us" (VT49:51; VT43:23, VT44:9). This pronoun preserves the original stem-form (VT49:50). Stressed (VT49:51). Cf. also mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47, mel- is evidently an assimilated form of men "for us", dative of me; the form men is attested by itself, VT43:21). For me as object, cf. ála** "do not [do something to] us", negative imperative particle with object pronoun suffixed (VT43:19: álamë tulya, "do not lead us"), ámen** "do [something for] us", imperative particle with dative pronoun suffixed (ámen apsenë "forgive us", VT43:12, 18). Dual exclusive met "we/us (two)" (Nam, VT49:51), "you and me" (VT47:11; the latter translation would make met an inclusive pronoun, though it is elsewhere suggested that it is rather exclusive: "him/her and me", corresponding to wet [q.v.] as the true inclusive dual form). Rá men or rámen "for us/on our behalf", see . Locative messë "on us", VT44:12 (also with prefix o, ó- ?"with" in the same source). See also ménë, ómë.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

imi 0

preposition. in

imi 0

in

imi prep. "in"; see mi (VT43:30)

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-ngwë 0

we

-ngwë "we", 1st person dual inclusive pronominal ending: "thou and I" (compare the exclusive dual form -mmë). Caringwë, "the two of us do" (VT49:16). One source lists the ending as "-inke > -inque" instead (VT49:51, 53, 57; "inke" was apparently Old Quenya). In an earlier pronoun table reproduced in VT49:48, the ending -ngwë is listed as an alternative to -lmë, which Tolkien at the time used as the plural inclusive ending (a later revision made it plural exclusive).

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

emmë 0

we

emmë (2) pron. "we", emphatic pronoun; dative emmen (VT43:12, 20). In the source this pronoun is intended as the 1st person plural exclusive; later Tolkien changed the corresponding pronominal ending from -mmë to -lmë, and the plural emphatic pronoun would likewise change from emmë to *elmë. Since the ending -mmë was redefined as a dualexclusive pronoun, the form emmë may still be valid as such, as a dual emphatic pronoun "we" = "(s)he and I".

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-lmë 0

we

-lmë 1st person pl. pronominal ending: "we" (VT49:38; 51 carilmë *"we do", VT49:16). It was originally intended to be inclusive "we" (VT49:48), including the person(s) spoken to, but by 1965 Tolkien made this the ending for exclusive "we" instead (cf. the changed definition of the corresponding possessive ending -lma, see above). _(VT49:38) Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (the meaning apparently changed from inclusive to exclusive "we", VT49:55), see also nalmë under # 1. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308_)

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-ngo 0

we (two)

-ngo "we (two)", abandoned pronominal ending for the 1st person dual inclusive (later revised by Tolkien to -ngwë/-nquë). An alternative form -lmo was also listed (VT49:48). The ending -ngo was probably meant to represent older *-ngwo (VT49:49).

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-mmo 0

suffix. we (exclusive dual)

Also glossed as “1st person dual”, “1st person dual exclusive”.

[PE17/075.2501; VT49/48.3207] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-mmo 0

we (two)

[-mmo "we (two)", abandoned pronominal suffix for the 1st person dual exclusive, which ending Tolkien later revised to -mmë (VT49:48).]

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-lwë 0

we

-lwë, later -lvë, pronominal ending "we" (VT49:51), 1st person pl. inclusive ending, occurring in the verbs carilwë "we do" (VT49:16) and navilwë (see #nav-). The ending became -lvë in later, Exilic Quenya (VT49:51). See -lv-.

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-lmo 0

we (two)

-lmo "we (two)", abandoned pronominal ending for the 1st person dual inclusive (later revised by Tolkien to -ngwë). This -lmo was listed as an alternative to -ngo (VT49:48).

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-lmë 0

suffix. we (exclusive)

Also glossed as “exclusive form”, “1st person plural”, “1st person plural exclusive”, “[Plural] 1a”.
Variations of the word: -ngwe.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-elmogenitiveexclusive formPE17/013.4203

[PE17/013.4202; PE17/130.3115; PE17/013.4203; PE17/075.2001; PE17/075.4203; PE17/129.4208; VT49/16.3505; VT49/51.2306; PE17/075.2002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

we 0

we

we, , see ve #2

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-m 0

suffix. we

1st du. pron. suff. #we (you and me). Q. -mmo.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-nc 0

suffix. we

1st du. pron. suff. #we (you and me). Q. -lmo.See paradigm PE17:132. -ngid

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ed 0

preposition. out

Also glossed as “out of”.
Variations of the word: ed-.

Element in: S. echor, S. ethir, S. ethir

[WJ/367.0305; PE17/141.1102-2; PE17/051.3808-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi 0

preposition. in

mîn 0

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

[Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

min- 0

preposition. (in) between (referring to a gap, space, barrier or anything intervening between two other things)

[Minhiriath LotR/Map, VT/47:11,14] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

ne- 0

prefix. in

ned 0

preposition. (uncertain meaning) in, of (about time, e.g. giving a date)

[Another possible interpretation: "another, one more" (related to Q. net(e)), VT/47:40]

[SD/129-31] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

vi 0

preposition. in

[VT/44:21,27] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

vi 0

preposition. in

Variations of the word: mi.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
v’elidedinPE22/165.2319
visoft-mutation*inVT44/22.3901; VT44/27.1601

[VT50/18.0307; VT50/18.3008; PE22/165.2319; VT44/22.3901; VT44/27.1601; VT50/18.3009; VT50/19.1506; VT44/22.3901|VT44/27.1601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e 0

out

e, ed (away, forth); also as adjectival prefix "outer" and preposition: (WJ:367)

men 0

we

men (accusative mín ”us”, presumably usually lenited vín, which is also the genitive ”our”).

vi 0

in

(prep.) 1) vi (VT44:23), with article vin; 2) ne, ned (used of time in the source), possibly followed by hard mutation (SD:129); 3) , unstressed di (beneath, under) (VT45:37). Note: a homophone means ”bride, lady”.

Black Speech

ishi 0

preposition. in

Also glossed as “inside”, “in (the)”.

[LotR/0254.1403; PE17/011.2102; PE17/012.0510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ishi 0

preposition. in, inside

Usually placed after the noun in Black Speech, c.f. burzum-ishi (darkness-inside).

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

di 0

preposition. in

[EtyAC/NDI.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ne- 0

prefix. in

Element in: N. neledh-, N. nestag-

[Ety/STAK.027-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nedh- 0

prefix. in, inside, mid-

See also the preposition ned , and the noun ened for a discussion of this form

[Ety/376] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

et 0

preposition. out

Also glossed as “out of”.
Variations of the word: et.

Element in: P. etkat-, P. et-kelē, P. etkuiwē, P. etlendā, P. etr-

[PE17/024.2006; PE17/038.2304; PE17/042.1013-1; PE17/045.1711; PE17/051.3805; SA/sîr.097; WJ/367.0204] Group: Eldamo. Published by

et 0

root. out

[PE17/152.4301; PE17/167.0903; VT48/25.2808; PE18/088.1401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

0

preposition. in

Also glossed as “within”.

[PE17/092.3715; VT47/30.3002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi/imi 0

root. in

Also glossed as “within”.
Variations of the word: mi.

[VT47/30.2908; PE17/092.3709; PE17/155.2201; VT43/30.3101; PE17/041.4009; PE17/165.1201; VT47/11.2713] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

ere- 0

prefix. out

Element in: EQ. erefainu

es- 0

prefix. out

Element in: EQ. Estirin

imi 0

adverb. in

Also glossed as “inside”.

Element in: EQ. iminqa

me 0

pronoun. we

Also glossed as “us”.
Variations of the word: me.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
mel?usLR/047.1205
mēne?on-usSD/310.3101
ménerstative-past plural-PE22/123.3803
ménetstative-past dual-PE22/123.3902
mierstative plural-PE22/123.3303
mietstative dual-PE22/123.3402

[LR/056.3204; PE22/112.3101; PE22/118.0918; PE22/119.2004; PE22/124.0809; PE22/127.0307; PE22/119.1907; LR/047.1205; SD/310.3101; PE22/123.3803; PE22/123.3902; PE22/123.3303; PE22/123.3402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mi 0

preposition. in

Also glossed as “within”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ímen?in themLR/072.1605

[LR/072.1605; Ety/MI.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mitta 0

preposition/adverb. in

Also glossed as “into”, “inwards”.

to 0

preposition. in

[PE22/125.1901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin

et- 0

prefix. out

Variations of the word: et-.

Element in: ON. etled-

[Ety/LED.015-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

(n)di 0

root. in

[EtyAC/NDI.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

et 0

preposition. out

Element in: MP. ektelu-

[PE22/114.0803] Group: Eldamo. Published by

et 0

root. out

Also glossed as “forth”.

Element in: MP. etsiri

[Ety/ET.001; Ety/ETER.003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imi 0

root. in

me 0

pronoun. we (exclusive)

Also glossed as “the exclusive we”, “we”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
mmāpossessive-PE17/014.1202

[PE17/014.1202; PE22/094.1816; PE17/014.1112] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mī/imi 0

root. in

Also glossed as “inside”.
Variations of the word: .

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
IMIinversioninEtyAC/IMÍ.030; EtyAC/MI.020
IMIinversionin?EtyAC/MI.025

[EtyAC/NDI.003; EtyAC/IMÍ.027; EtyAC/MI.022; EtyAC/MI.026; EtyAC/IMÍ.001; EtyAC/NDI.004; Ety/MI.001; EtyAC/MI.025; EtyAC/IMÍ.030; EtyAC/MI.020; EtyAC/IMÍ.030|EtyAC/MI.020] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ndē̆- 0

prefix. in

Also glossed as “inside”.

[EtyAC/NĒ̆.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

ba 0

preposition. in

Variations of the word: bi-, b’, ba.

[GL/21.0301; GL/21.0308; GL/21.0310; GL/21.0305] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bi 0

preposition. in

Variations of the word: bi.

Element in: G. bin, G. bir

[GL/20.8604; GL/22.8601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bir 0

preposition. in

Also glossed as “within”, “inside”.

Elements

WordGlossSource
biin, within, insideGL/22.8601

me- 0

pronoun. we

Also glossed as “1st-plural pronoun”, “[1st person plural]”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
mirdativeto usGL/57.7001

[PE13/097.1101; GL/57.7001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

um 0

pronoun. we

Variations of the word: umin.

[GL/74.8401; GL/74.8402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

eðe/ese 0

root. out

[LT1A/Eruman.038; LT1A/Neni Erúmëar.044; QL/036.2301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eře 0

root. out

mī/imi 0

root. in

Also glossed as “into”.
Variations of the word: MĪ².

[QL/042.5801; QL/061.2201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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