-valta suffix "-less", also -viltë (evidently endings used to derive adjectives like "lifeless") (GL:23) The ending -lóra appears with the same meaning in Tolkien's later Quenya.
-viltë adjectival ending "-less", also -valta (evidently endings used to derive adjectives like "lifeless") (GL:23). Rather -lóra in Tolkien's later Quenya.
-lóra ending "-less, without", as in ómalóra "voiceless" (VT45:28)
-enca suffix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. nec-, q.v.
nec- prefix "without, -less" (PE17:167), cf. -enca, q.v.
Also glossed as “-less”.
Also glossed as “not”, “un-”, “in-; hard”, “difficult”, “bad”, “uneasy”, “hard”, “hardly”, “with difficulty”, “‘badly’”, “not-”, “in-”, “negative prefix”, “hard to do”.
Variations of the word: ū-, ū, ú-.
Word Gloss Source ú not-, un-, in- PE17/143.4004
Element in: Q. úcarë, Q. úcárima, Q. úfantima, Q. úfanwëa, Q. úχarin, Q. Úlairi, Q. Úmaiar, Q. úmaitë, Q. Úmaneldi, Q. Úmanyar, Q. úmara, Q. únat, Q. únotë(a), Q. únótima, Q. únyárima, Q. úpa, Q. úpahtëa, Q. úquétima, Q. úsahtië, Q. úsië, Q. úsir, Q. úvana, Q. úvanë(a), Q. úvanima, Q. úvanimo
Also glossed as “destitute of”, “with”.
Variations of the word: ū.
úwithout, destitute of
ú (1) adv. and prep. "without, destitute of" (VT39:14). Usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light" (cala). In one source, ú is seemingly also used as a negative verb "was not" (VT49:13), but Tolkien revised the text in question.
Also glossed as “not having”.
penwithout, not having
[pen prep. "without, not having" (PE17:171). Cf. Ú #1.]
lá (1) adv. "no, not" (LA, VT45:25) According to VT42:33, lá is the stressed form, alternating with la when the negation is unstressed. In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, lá had the opposite meaning "yes" (VT42:32-33), but this idea is contradicted by both earlier and later material: usually lá is conceived as a negation. The negation can receive tense markers and be used as a negative verb "when [another] verb is not expressed" (VT49:13), apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood, as in English "I do not" (i.e. "I do not do whatever the context indicates"). With pronominal endings la- in the aorist, e.g. lanyë "I do not, am not" (etc.) (Tolkien abandoned the form lamin.) Exemplified in the sentence melin sé apa lanyë hé *"I love him but I do not [love] him" (another person) (VT49:15). Present tense laia, past lánë, perfect alaië, future lauva.
Also glossed as “not”, “not (it isn’t”, “it doesn’t”, “not it)”, “don’t”.
Variations of the word: la, lá.
Word Form Gloss Source lanye 1st-sg I don’t, not I PE22/153.1912 lánye aorist 1st-sg I don’t PE22/166.1503
la negation "no, not" (see lá); also prefix la- as in lacarë, q.v. (VT45:25)
il-verb. no, *un-
il- (prefix) "no, *un-" (LA); cf. ilfirin "immortal" (vs. firin "dead"). This prefix "denotes the opposite, the reversal, i.e. more than the mere negation" (VT42:32). But il- can also mean "all, every"; see ilaurëa, ilqua, ilquen.
cumna ("k")adj. "empty" (KUM)
ava- (3) prefix "without" (AR2, AWA). In some cases apparently used as a mere negation prefix: The form avalerya in VT41:6 is seemingly a negated form of the verb lerya- "release, set free"; the verb avalerya- is suggested to have the same meaning as the root KHAP = "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty". Likewise, the verb avalatya- from the same source seems to mean "to close, shut", this being a negated form of a verb *latya- "open" (q.v.)
au- (3) privative prefix, = "without" (AWA)
ui interjection "no" (originally an endingless negative verb in the 3rd person aorist: "it is not [so]"; see #u-). Apparently this is the word for "no" used to deny that something is true (compare vá, which is rather used to reject orders, or to issue negative orders). (VT49:28) Compare uito.