Quenya zR5Ì#

-ccë 0

suffix. you (dual)

Also glossed as “2nd person dual familiar”.
Variations of the word: -cce.

[PE17/057.2304; PE17/057.2303] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-cca 0

suffix. your (dual)

Also glossed as “2nd person dual familiar possessive”.
Variations of the word: -cca.

[PE17/057.3004; PE17/057.3003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-xa 0

suffix. your (dual)

-xë 0

suffix. you (dual)

elmë 0

pronoun. we (emphatic inclusive)

Also glossed as “we (emphatic exclusive)”.
Variations of the word: elme.

[PE17/136.0510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elvë 0

pronoun. we (emphatic inclusive)

Also glossed as “inclusive”, “we = you and I/me”.

[PE17/013.4211] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elyë 0

pronoun. thou (emphatic polite)

Also glossed as “even thou”, “thou”, “you (singular)”.
Variations of the word: elye.

[PE17/075.0308; PE17/076.1302; PE17/076.1401; PE17/135.3303; PE22/162.4411; RGEO/58.2102; RGEO/59.1902; VT43/30.2501; LotR/0378.0202] Group: Eldamo. Published by

emmë 0

pronoun. we (emphatic exclusive)

Also glossed as “we (dual emphatic exclusive)”, “we”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
emmendative*against usVT43/21.2508

[VT43/20.0401; VT43/21.2508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

essë 0

pronoun. he

Also glossed as “she”, “it (emphatic)”.

esto 0

pronoun. they (dual emphatic)

Also glossed as “3rd person dual emphatic”.

[PE17/075.3001; VT49/48.3606] Group: Eldamo. Published by

issë 0

pronoun. he

Also glossed as “she”, “it (emphatic)”.
Variations of the word: isse.

[PE17/126.2107; PE22/162.4412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

a 0

pronoun. it

A pronominal prefix, most likely the neuter singular pronoun “it”, appearing in the word ayadda “[it] went” in the sentence adûn izindi batân tâidô ayadda “the road west [it] once went straight” (SD/247). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.
Variations of the word: a-.

[SD/247.19051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

0

pronoun. me

This element appears to be the object pronoun “me” in the phrase bâ kitabdahê “don’t touch me” (SD/250). It is not clear whether it could also serve as a subject pronoun “I”. Thorsten Renk instead suggested (NBA/18) that -hê may be a marker for the imperative, and proposed the invented word Ad. !ni for “I, me”, a hypothetical cognate of Q. ni.

[SD/250.34072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hi 0

pronoun. she

A pronominal prefix, the feminine singular pronoun “she” (SD/247). It appears in the pseudo-phrase hi-Akallabêth “She-that-hath-fallen” in the sentence êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth and in the verb form hikalba “[she] fell” in the sentence Anadûnê zîrân hikalba “Númenor beloved fell (down)”. See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
hi-prefixsheSD/247.2704

ki 0

pronoun. you

A pronominal prefix, most likely the second person pronoun “you”, appearing in the verb kitabdahê “[you] touch me” in the sentence bâ kitabdahê (SD/250). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ki-prefix-SD/250.3407

0

pronoun. us

A first person plural object pronoun “us” attested only in the prepositional phrase “on us” in the Lament of Akallabêth, developing though the various drafts as nēnum >> nēnu >> nēnud (SD/247, 312). Most authors identify the element as the pronoun (AAD/20, LGtAG, NBA/14), which seems likely since the prepositional element is probably -num/nu/nud related to Q. nu “under”. It is not clear whether this pronoun can also be used as a subject pronoun “we”, or if it must always be an object “us”.
Variations of the word: .

[SD/247.1703; SD/312.0301; SD/312.2804] Group: Eldamo. Published by

u 0

pronoun. he

A well-attested pronominal prefix, the masculine singular pronoun “he” (SD/433). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion. Tolkien said that it had another variant hu- (SD/433), but this variant was only appears in the early and rejected hunekkū, which was changed to unekkū (see nakh-). Tolkien further indicated that the form u- primitively had an initial consonant [ɣ] or [ʔ] that was lost (SD/433).
Variations of the word: u-/hu-.

ya 0

noun. they (neuter)

A pronominal prefix, most likely the neuter/common plural pronoun “they”. It appears in the verb yanâkhim “[they] are at hand” in the sentence narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn yanâkhim and in the verb yakalubim “[they] lean over” in the sentence urîd yakalubim (SD/251), both sentences having plural subjects. See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.
Variations of the word: ya-.

[SD/251.03041; SD/251.28021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yi 0

pronoun. they (feminine)

A hypothetical feminine plural pronoun “they”, assuming it follows the same pattern as masculine yu and neuter ya, as suggested by several authors (AL/Adûnaic, NBA/14, LGtAG).

yu 0

pronoun. they (masculine)

A pronominal prefix, most likely the masculine plural pronoun “they”, appearing in the verb yurahtam “[they] broke” in the sentence Bârim an-Adûn yurahtam dâira sâibêth-mâ Êruvô (SD/247). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
yu-prefix-SD/247.08051

[SD/247.08051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

hi 0

root. she

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as i “she” (SD/435), but given the later feminine pronoun Ad. hi, the actual primitive pronoun must have been *HI [xi]. The suffix -i was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic feminine-nouns.

ʒu 0

root. he

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as u “he” (SD/435), but given the later Adûnaic pronoun Ad. u or hu “he”, the actual primitive pronoun may have been *ƷU [ɣu], *ʔU or *HU [xu], as Tolkien indicated in a footnote (SD/433, note #7). The suffix -u was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic masculine-nouns.

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