Quenya zR5Ì#

-cca

suffix. your (dual), 2nd person dual familiar possessive

[PE17/057.3004; PE17/057.3003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-cca

your

[-cca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural or dual possessive (VT49:49). Compare -lca.]

-ccë

suffix. you (dual), 2nd person dual familiar

Variations of the word: -cce.

[PE17/057.2304; PE17/057.2303] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-lca

your

[-lca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural possessive (VT49:49). Cf. -cca.]

-xa

suffix. your (dual)

-lda

your

-lda (1) "your", 2nd person pl. possessive suffix (VT49:16). Onnalda *"your child" (VT49:42). In an earlier manuscript, this ending was used for singular "you" instead, attested in the phrase Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen vanimalda was however changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR, Tolkien reinterpreting the last word (see vanimalda). The ending for singular "your" appears as -lya elsewhere. (LotR1:II ch. 6)

-sta

your

-sta (1) "your", dual 2nd person possessive pronominal ending: "of you two" (VT49:45, 16), cf. -stë (q.v.) Genitive -sto in veryanwesto "of your wedding" (VT49:45) and tengwiesto "of your reading" (VT49:47), allative -stanna in parmastanna "on your book" (VT49:47). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual "of the two of them" (but according to VT49:51, the corresponding subject ending was changed to -ttë, and then the ending for "their" would presumably become -tta)

-tya,

your, thy

-tya, pronominal ending, 2nd person sg. intimate/familiar "your, thy" (VT49:16, 38, 48); compare -tyë

-xë

suffix. you (dual)

essë

pronoun. it (emphatic), he, she

issë

pronoun. he, she, it (emphatic)

Variations of the word: isse.

[PE17/126.2107; PE22/162.4412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elyë

pronoun. thou, you (singular), even thou, thou (emphatic polite)

Variations of the word: elye.

[PE17/075.0308; PE17/076.1302; PE17/076.1401; PE17/135.3303; PE22/162.4411; RGEO/58.2102; RGEO/59.1902; VT43/30.2501; LotR/0378.0202] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esto

pronoun. 3rd person dual emphatic, they (dual emphatic)

[PE17/075.3001; VT49/48.3606] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elvë

pronoun. we = you and i/me, inclusive, we (emphatic inclusive)

[PE17/013.4211] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elmë

pronoun. we (emphatic exclusive), we (emphatic inclusive)

Variations of the word: elme.

[PE17/136.0510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

emmë

pronoun. we (dual emphatic exclusive), we, we (emphatic exclusive)

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
emmendative*against usVT43/21.2508

[VT43/20.0401; VT43/21.2508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-eg

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -gen_. -el, -gen

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-el

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. _your. Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -lein. -eg, -lein

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-gen

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -eg_. -eg

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-lein

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -el_. -el

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Adûnaic

a

pronoun. it

A pronominal prefix, most likely the neuter singular pronoun “it”, appearing in the word ayadda “[it] went” in the sentence adûn izindi batân tâidô ayadda “the road west [it] once went straight” (SD/247). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.
Variations of the word: a-.

[SD/247.19051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yu

pronoun. they (masculine)

A pronominal prefix, most likely the masculine plural pronoun “they”, appearing in the verb yurahtam “[they] broke” in the sentence Bârim an-Adûn yurahtam dâira sâibêth-mâ Êruvô (SD/247). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
yu-prefix-SD/247.08051

[SD/247.08051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hi

pronoun. she

A pronominal prefix, the feminine singular pronoun “she” (SD/247). It appears in the pseudo-phrase hi-Akallabêth “She-that-hath-fallen” in the sentence êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth and in the verb form hikalba “[she] fell” in the sentence Anadûnê zîrân hikalba “Númenor beloved fell (down)”. See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
hi-prefixsheSD/247.2704

[SD/247.2704] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pronoun. me

This element appears to be the object pronoun “me” in the phrase bâ kitabdahê “don’t touch me” (SD/250). It is not clear whether it could also serve as a subject pronoun “I”. Thorsten Renk instead suggested (NBA/18) that -hê may be a marker for the imperative, and proposed the invented word Ad. !ni for “I, me”, a hypothetical cognate of Q. ni.

[SD/250.34072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ki

pronoun. you

A pronominal prefix, most likely the second person pronoun “you”, appearing in the verb kitabdahê “[you] touch me” in the sentence bâ kitabdahê (SD/250). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ki-prefix-SD/250.3407

[SD/250.3407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pronoun. us

A first person plural object pronoun “us” attested only in the prepositional phrase “on us” in the Lament of Akallabêth, developing though the various drafts as nēnum >> nēnu >> nēnud (SD/247, 312). Most authors identify the element as the pronoun (AAD/20, LGtAG, NBA/14), which seems likely since the prepositional element is probably -num/nu/nud related to Q. nu “under”. It is not clear whether this pronoun can also be used as a subject pronoun “we”, or if it must always be an object “us”.
Variations of the word: .

[SD/247.1703; SD/312.0301; SD/312.2804] Group: Eldamo. Published by

u

pronoun. he

A well-attested pronominal prefix, the masculine singular pronoun “he” (SD/433). See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion. Tolkien said that it had another variant hu- (SD/433), but this variant was only appears in the early and rejected hunekkū, which was changed to unekkū (see nakh-). Tolkien further indicated that the form u- primitively had an initial consonant [ɣ] or [ʔ] that was lost (SD/433).
Variations of the word: u-/hu-.

[SD/433.3901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ya

noun. they (neuter)

A pronominal prefix, most likely the neuter/common plural pronoun “they”. It appears in the verb yanâkhim “[they] are at hand” in the sentence narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn yanâkhim and in the verb yakalubim “[they] lean over” in the sentence urîd yakalubim (SD/251), both sentences having plural subjects. See the entry on pronominal-prefixes for more discussion.
Variations of the word: ya-.

[SD/251.03041; SD/251.28021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yi

pronoun. they (feminine)

A hypothetical feminine plural pronoun “they”, assuming it follows the same pattern as masculine yu and neuter ya, as suggested by several authors (AL/Adûnaic, NBA/14, LGtAG).


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Primitive adûnaic

hi

root. she

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as i “she” (SD/435), but given the later feminine pronoun Ad. hi, the actual primitive pronoun must have been *HI [xi]. The suffix -i was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic feminine-nouns.

[SD/435.0309] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒu

root. he

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as u “he” (SD/435), but given the later Adûnaic pronoun Ad. u or hu “he”, the actual primitive pronoun may have been *ƷU [ɣu], *ʔU or *HU [xu], as Tolkien indicated in a footnote (SD/433, note #7). The suffix -u was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic masculine-nouns.

[SD/435.0307] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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